Coleman E, Eilertsen T, Magid D, et.al. The Association Between Care Coordination and Emergency Department Use in Older Managed Care Enrollees. International Journal of Care Integration. 2002;2. http://www.caretransitions.org/documents/The%20assoc%20between%20care%20coord%20-%20IJIC.pdf Results: Self-reported care co-ordination was not significantly different between cases and controls for any of the four classifications of inappropriate ED use. Similarly, no differences were found in the number of different physicians or medication prescribers involved in the patients’ care. Four-week follow-up after potentially high-risk events for subsequent ED use, including changes in chronic disease medications, missed encounters, and same day encounters, did not differ between subjects with inappropriate ED use and controls. Conclusion: Existing measures of care co-ordination were not associated with inappropriate ED use in this study of older adults with complex care needs. The absence of an association may, in part, be attributable to the paucity of validated measures to assess care co-ordination, as well as the methodological complexity inherent in studying this topic. Future research should focus on the development of new measures and on approaches that better isolate the role of care co-ordination from other potential variables that influence utilization.